Sunday, July 18, 2010

Ergonomics (Product description and Idea Trigger)

Product: Shoe Brush

i) Describe the product.

The product is a blue shoe brush with two ends. Both ends can be used to brush the shoe. The end with more bristle is normally used to cover a larger area on the shoe. The opposite end would then be used to cover a smaller area more finely. At that end, there is a hole for one to hand the product. There is no grip on the brush, so friction cannot be increased, and the brush will slide when one uses it. However, there is a curve for a grip closer to the area with more bristle. The bristle itself is hard and thick to scrub dirt off shoes with harder textures.

ii) What are the design considerations when designing this product?

• How is the product used?
• What could be done to increase to effectiveness of the product?
• Which design could be best used to lessen the time used, but with better results?
• How does one grip onto the product when using it?
• How can the texture be changed, so that the user has more comfort and ease?

iii) Would an elderly faced difficulty using this product? If yes, what are the difficulties that the elderly would face?

Yes, the elderly would face difficulty when using this product.

• Firstly, the brush does not have a good grip for one to grip on. The brush would keep sliding with recurring use. This would become a problem for the elderly, as they would need to exert more force when they are already quite weak.

• The end with less bristle can have a grip on its own, because that way it would be easier to use that side, instead of the one with more bristle.

iv) What do you think can be done to improve on the design of the product to suit the elderly? (Sketch the improved design in your sketchbook and take a picture of it. Post the improved sketch at the end of your post.)

The product can have a grip included, so that there is friction, to stop the brush from sliding.

Another grip could be made for the smaller and finer end.

Ergonomics 2

1. What is Ergonomics?

Ergonomics is the study of a person's work place, which includes any place a certain person goes to. (For example, children's work place is the playground, school etc.)

2. What are the 5 aspects of Ergonomics?

The 5 aspects of Ergonomics are:

Ease of Use
Productivity / Performance


3. For each aspect of Ergonomics, explain with an example of a product that is designed for the elderly, how the product meet that particular aspect of Ergonomics.


Find-A-Light reflective glow-in-the-dark switchplate


 3 Way Easy Opener assistive kitchen product

This kitchen product opens bottle caps, pull tabs, and open box tops. This product helps the elderly, so that instead of opening it themselves, the texture of the opener would comfort them.

Ease of Use

Talking Caller ID Amplified Telephone with vocal read out of names and numbers

This phone has a voice read-out that tells the elderly of the number calling and the name. This makes it easy to use for most of the elderly population.


Squeezit Hand Exerciser

This hand exerciser lets any elderly squeeze it to strengthen hand muscles. It is also very durable, which can last forever.


100% Cotton Terrycloth Bathrobe

This bathrobe is for people with arthritis, and it is made very simply and beautifully of silk cotton.

Elderly Challenge - Observation 2

 (I sincerely apologize, but without my phone, I really cannot take any photos)

In HDB Flats, with some without lifts, the stairs is a big challenge for most of the elderly. They would have to take their time, about 5 minutes to walk up or down one floor.

The stairs could then also become a safety hazard. Especially escalators. If the elderly would accidentally lose balance, they would tumble down the stairs. And with stairs it would not be easy to keep the balance of their body the same.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Elderly Challenge - Observation 1

(I sincerely apologize, but without my phone, I really cannot take any photos)

Sometimes, when I see stairs leading up to a hawker centre (like the one in Bedok Market Place), I feel that the elderly would have a lot of trouble going up what seems like 1 floor.

When they go up, they go slowly. Like stepping one step at a time, so that it is safer for them.

The architectural design could have had a lift included. Hence, the elderly would not have to really walk up and down stairs.

For those common neighbourhood hawker centres, we see the different ways the help wheelchair-bounded people. Sometimes, there is a slight slope. Sometimes, there are bigger steps to help the people lifting wheelchairs.

Ergonomics 1

The first scene shows the two men taking off their coats. Let us call the one on the left "White", and the one on the right "Black", based on their coat and suit colour.

1. Compare the 2 different workplaces, state your observations.

By looking at the overview after the men taking off their coat, we see that White's desk is more bulky and cluttered, and Black's desk is much tidier, and with a simpler design.

Ergonomic Issue # 1: Comfort and Simplicity

White's chair has a fixed armrest, which makes his hands difficult to adjust according to the situations needed, like for laptop use. His arms are fixed, unless he moves himself out, and in again. It would also seem that he has trouble adjusting himself for the chair.

Black's chair, "The Liberty Chair", has a much simpler design. The lever in which is used to adjust the height is easily found, and within reach. The chair seems to have a lean-back function, which allows the user to lean back and bend the chair according to his needs. Although it might be dangerous if it works on a lever design, it is a good way to keep the design simple and easy to understand (for new users).

Ergonomic Issue #2: Incorrect Height and Depth

White is unable to lean forward a lot, because of his chair. He squints at the screen in front of him, showing us that it is difficult to look at the fixed PC monitor. He evens expands the actions by using a magnifying glass.

Black, and his "M7 Monitor Arm", shows him being able to adjust the screen's height and distance according to his needs. If he wanted it to come closer, he can just pull it towards him. This way, he doesn't need extra optic aids.

Ergonomic Issue #3: Task Lighting

White's lights are those old table lamps, which seems to creak each time he moves them. The lamps are glaring, as shown by White squinting whenever he turns on one lamp. By wearing dark goggles, he also shows how glaring the light is.

Black's "Diffrient Lights" is adjustable to suit the users needs, like for writing, or the use of laptops or PCs, as shown by him moving the lights up and down. The light has a soft feel to it, so perhaps it might have adjustable brightness too.

Ergonomic Issue #4: Freedom of Movement

White fidgets a lot, and has to move his chair a lot too. His arms are cramped and "stuck" to the table. He does not seem to have a comfortable area to move around. His coffee cup is also difficult to reach and grab hold of. The chair even had its armrest broken.

Black, with the freedom chair, has a wide range of space to move about. His chair's armrest could be moved up and down very easily. He is also able to lean back on the chair without falling.

Ergonomic Issue #5: Prolonged Laptop Use

White has trouble looking at the laptop screen from his high chair. He has to flip the laptop up and down, and still cannot have a good view of the laptop screen. He twitches his face to show that he has very cramped neck. He even has to lift his leg on the table to be able to see the laptop screen clearly. He solves the problem by stacking the laptop on two files.

Black, and the L2 Laptop Holder, has a good place to place the laptop, which is adjustable.

Ergonomic Issue #6: Usable Desk Space

White has a lot of things on his desk, and has to search for things there. It is easy for him to accidentally topple something over. With so little space, he even knocked down his coffee cup. He does not even know where to place the keyboard anymore.

Black, with the Access Rail, has a larger and cleaner desk space. Everything can be placed on the access rail itself.

2. Which workplace is preferred? State with reasons why one workplace is preferred over the other.

Black's space is preferred for its space and simplicity. It is clean, and has a place for everything.

3. What are the considerations that should be taken into account when designing a workplace that is suitable for the user?

The user's comfort, space, how suitable it is to the user's working environment.

4. Why do you think that Ergonomics is important when designing?

Ergonomics allows us to have a good and clean idea of what the designers need to look out for, avoid, and improve.

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Holiday Work - Part 1: Understanding the Elderly Challenge

Explain in your own words, the FOUR key recommendations of the report.

The four key recommendations of the report are Housing, Accessibility, Caring & Opportunities.

Housing for Seniors -
HDB is recommended to have more elderly friendly options for housing in Singapore.

Accessibility for Seniors -
It is recommended to turn the entire island to a barrier-free society to make it easy for the elderly.

Caring for Seniors -
The government is recommended to make elderly care affordable such as using their MediSave account.

Opportunities for Seniors -
The government helps set up activities for the elderly. As well as programs to help the elderly understand their health issues.

State ONE way that the CAI report is recommending to make our public housing more elderly-friendly

The Housing Development Board (HDB) builds slopes and steps at the same place, so that the elderly on wheelchairs are able to go up and down the void deck.

State TWO ways on how we can ensure that the quality of elderly care here in Singapore is affordable

More subsidies are given for the more needy elderly.

 Healthcare services are close and easily accessible to the seniors.

After reading the CAI report, what do you are the THREE things that you can do, as an SST student, to help overcome these elderly challenges

By donating money to the elderly care services, we are able to contribute to the caring of the elderly. Also, it does not mean we have to donate a large amount.

We are able to support the elderly in their home, as with service learning.

By observing the elderly, we are able to see which type of elderly is needed help.

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Personal Reflection (NEwater visit)

1. What are the 3 key takeaways from today’s visit?

One of them is learning about the four national taps in Singapore and in great details.
The learning of NEWater's process of treating used water
Learning Singapore's main uses of water.

2. Name 2 concepts that you have learnt today during the visit.

The concept of NEWater's treatment of water.
Singapore's water supply is never lasting.

3. What is the 1 interesting thing that you have learnt today?

NEWater is currently contributing 15% of Singapore's water supply.

4. What are the things that you can do to help with water conservation in Singapore?

Not waste water when cleaning up yourself (Brush teeth etc.)
Do not throw away water when you don't need it.

Thursday, March 11, 2010

Individual Reflection (9 March)

What are the 3 key takeaways from today’s lesson?

We need to be aware of the limitations of our ideas.

Ideas need to be unique and creative to make a big impact.

When designing a product, we need to think of the target audience and location,

2. Name 2 concepts that you have learnt today pertaining to design and describe why is it important in design?

The uniqueness of the item makes it stand out, and more people would buy it from the market.

Looking at competitors is important, we need to make sure that the market has as little as none of those product types, and ensure competitors don’t stick their nose into other’s designs.

What is the 1 interesting thing that you have learnt today?

Even though an idea may seem impossible, it again might not, since we might have the resources to go for the kill. For example, convincing the government is not easy. But it can be done.

Sunday, February 14, 2010

Photography - People

A very excited Matthew getting ready his best camera for the photo-taking session near the canteen. Don’t press the button yet, Matthew!

Here is Fatin posing for the camera, and trying to look cute. Is she going to the canteen for a drink? Or is she just having the best time of her life getting on camera?

Arthur and Yi Fan looking surprised to be on camera. Yi Fan’s a tad... overjoyed? But Arthur just does not know what’s going on...

Tuesday, February 9, 2010


Point 01: Different Types of Photography

(I shall list out 10 types here. The rest, please refer to: )

  • Adventure, Action - Photos of adventurous sports in action.
  • Black & White - Photography without colour, allowing viewers to explore the shapes.
  • Commercial - Photos used for advertising.
  • Forensics - Photos used in police work, forensics analysis.
  • Nature - Photos of nature: landscape, plants, animals, sea, fungi etc.
  • Night - Photos taken during the night, but with good-quality.
  • Scenic - Photos of landscapes, city views etc.
  • Satellite - Photos taken of the Earth in orbit.
  • Scientific - Photos used for scientific research, such as photos taken with a microscope.
  • Underwater - Photos taken underwater, including marine life.

Point 02: Equipments

  • Cameras
  • Lenses
  • Accessories
  • Digital Darkroom

(Please read on more at )

Point 3: Aperture

Aperture is a lens’ diaphragm opening inside the camera’s lens.

(More at: )

Point 4: Focus

Focus is a point at which rays of light or other radiation converge or from which they appear to diverge, as after refraction or reflection in an optical system.

(More at: )

Point 5: Shutter Speed

The shutter speed is the amount of time the shutter is open to take in the photo of the object(s) and the scene.

(From: )

Point 6: ISO Speed

ISO stands for “International Standard Organization” and the speed of the ISO is a standard for measuring the film.

(More at: )

Point 7: Metering

Metering, or light metering, is the time that is needed to take the best shot of a moving light, like the sun.

(From: )

Point 8: White Balance

White balance is the balance of the color of light in which photos are taken. (Like blue, orange, or green light is not accepted when its too dark (the colour, not the light)

(From: )

Point 9: Photography Composition

Photographs tell stories. But photographs should also maintain a good composition balance (balance of the photographer when he/she is standing). And also to obseve a few rules:

  • Rules of Thirds - to crop photos to focus on the main object, instead of the central view.
  • The Golden Section - the objects which please the eyes, are made clearer.
  • Diagonal Rule - the photo should be made diagonal to capture all the points in the photo.

( )

Point 10: Techniques

Since there are literally millions of techniques so please refer to for more techniques.

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Difference between Perspective, Isometric, Oblique and Orthographic Drawing.

Perspective Drawing

Perspective Drawing is the technique used to represent three-dimensional images on a two-dimensional plane.

What do you mean by that? First of all, let's take a look at perspective drawing's processes. The first part of the process is called 'linear perspective drawing'. Linear perspective drawing actually means to draw the 'outline' of the items in the drawing as shapes first. An example would be this: central_eye_level_1.gif

Only the shapes are outlined, together with the structure. Also, a blind spot is presented within the drawing (the little red dot with lines coming out of it.)
This basically forms the 'backbone' of the drawing, in which the next part comes in.

Aerial perspective drawing is more of the color and texture and less of shapes. When we look at a linear perspective drawing, it barely soothes the eye. And so, this is the next part: to add a flourish of colors and textures to the first linear perspective drawing. This is the example of the picture above after the aerial perspective drawing process:
Get the picture? (get it? picture?)
So now, I've basically summarized Perspective drawing. (All information with thanks to though no copying was done)

Isometric Drawing

If you've played Who Has The Biggest Brain on Facebook, or taken the New South Wales Maths Assessment, isometric drawing should not be a new thing. Isometric drawing is drawn using rulers to ensure accuracy of the drawing. (normally, cubes) Also, all vertical lines in an isometric drawing is kept vertical, but the horizontal line are 30 degrees horizontal.

Take a look at this example taken from BBC (Information also rephrased from the same website):


Isometric drawings are also easier to scale from plain view.

Oblique Drawing

Oblique drawings show a 3-dimensional view of an object, the difference from isometric drawing is: oblique drawings show you what is in between the objects. Take a look at this diagram, taken from's Library (information also abstracted from that site) to see the different steps to draw an oblique drawing:


Firstly, draw a tic-tac-toe-like diagram. That will be your diagram's backbone. Second, make your 'backbone' three-dimensional by making it look like a cube with lines inside it. Third, draw the thing in which you want to draw (let's say, a smaller cube, or a stair-like shape) and outline it, then erase the original cube, and, lastly, add the measurements.

One more thing about oblique drawing: calivier, normal and cabinet obliques.

Calivier Oblique = Full measurement used in drawing (which means, if you want to draw the stairs, you need a very big piece of paper)

Normal Oblique = Depth 3/4 of real measurement

Cabinet Oblique = Depth half of real measurement

Orthographic Drawings

Related to isometric drawings. Orthographic drawings are of those done by designers. From all views top, bottom, side to side. This is an example of a 'rough' orthographic drawing:


This 'box' if so called cut, it would look like this:


As you can see, there are six sides: front, top, rear, bottom, left-side and right-side view.

And now, the 'box' is made into a car, and it comes out like this: ortho09.gif

That is why I said it was like a designer's drawing, cause we look from every side of the object: to get the feeling of 3-D out.

With help from

That concludes my explanation and comparing of all the different types of drawings listed.


Friday, January 15, 2010

ADMT - Environment

Environment means "external factors affecting an organism".

Sources - New Oxford American Dictionary,

Monday, January 11, 2010

ADMT - Art, Design, Media, and Technology

ADMT basically is using Technology to design and make art. For example, instead of using oil pastels to paint a picture, we can use a programme. Then email each other (media).